Maximal CO2-reduktion per investerad krona för personbilar: En bred systemanalys
Sammanfattning: This study examines the cost efficiency of reducing carbon emissions for personal vehicles by changing from petrol to either liquid bio fuels or electric operation. Based on own simulations of fuel consumption, life cycle-emissions and -production costs are derived based on existing knowledge through previous studies. The results are finally presented as ’SEK per reduced ton of CO2’; a unit that expresses the required additional investment in order to reduce the carbon footprint compared to a reference petrol car. Several sensitivity analyses are then performed in order to study the effects of various parameters on the cost efficiency of reducing carbon emissions, such as a lower vehicle weight or the capacity of the battery pack of an electric vehicle. A final attempt to maximize cost efficiency is then performed to examine under which circumstances certain methods are preferable. The outcome of this study is that bio fuels based on biomass from forest industry yields the best result in terms of cost efficiency and total reduction of carbon emissions with a value of 1207 SEK per reduced ton of CO2 for a vehicle run on HVO derived from pine oil. Maximum cost efficiency for combustion cars occurs when vehicle weights and displacement volumes are low, and driving cycles with high top speeds are chosen. After optimization of the HVO vehicle, a cost efficiency of 508 SEK per reduced ton of CO2 were achieved. Electric drive trains initially have low cost efficiencies compared to other alternatives with a result of 4276 SEK per reduced ton of CO2 for operation on Swedish electricity mix. The higher cost per ton of CO2 is mainly due to high production costs for the vehicle itself. In order to compete with the studied bio fuels, production costs of electric vehicles need to decrease by 20 to 25 % to reach the same level of cost efficiency. Choosing smaller battery packs, driving cycles with urban driving and long assumed life cycle distances however shows a large potential and improvements in the resulting cost efficiency for electric vehicles. After optimization, cost efficiencies were improved to 1570 SEK per reduced ton of CO2. Further work may be done by acquiring data regarding both production costs and -emissions directly from car manufacturers. Inclusion of additional life cycle phases such as maintenance or recycling are also relevant items for future studies.
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