Förnybar vätgas i Skåne – En utvärdering av praktiskt genomförbar potential ur ett energisystemperspektiv
Sammanfattning: Hydrogen is an energy carrier that could be a part of fossil free energy systems. That is why the practicable potential of renewable hydrogen to benefit the energy system of Scania, Sweden, within the time frame of until 2030 was evaluated in this report. This was done through reviewing the technical and regional conditions and through interviews with seven regional actors involved in hydrogen, as well as through an estimation of potential production of renewable hydrogen in the region. These factors were then synthesized in an analysis of the practicable potential. The technical conditions for production, storage, distribution and application of renewable hydrogen were concluded as sufficient as to not be a limiting factor for the practicable potential within the time frame. Identified regional conditions that could affect the practicable potential were the lack of studied geological spaces for underground storage, while the existing gas grid in the region could be beneficial for distribution of hydrogen, after acceptable hydrogen levels in the gas grid have been determined. Limitations of the practicable potential that were identified from the interviews were the lack of subsidies and a national strategy for hydrogen. The potential production of hydrogen in the region was estimated to 1,3–6,3 TWh/year from electrolysis with renewable electricity and 0,33–2,3 TWh from reforming of biogas. An equivalent estimation could not be done for gasification. The analysis resulted in possible value-chains with varying practicable potential and benefit to the energy system. Storage in pressure vessels was determined as most feasible alternative for all identified value-chains. Value-chains with more practicable potential were determined to include large scale hydrogen production by electrolysis, distribution using road transport and the applications of producing electricity through fuel cells during temporary power shortage, fuel specifically for heavy duty transport, as a part of a gas mixture with biogas or natural gas for combustion, or lastly as feedstock for upgrading biogas. Hydrogen production through gasification of biomass was determined to be a very beneficial method due to the decreased competition for resources compared to that of production from electricity and biogas, while lacking technical maturity. The present gas grid of Scania could be a beneficial method for distribution if injection of a sufficient amount of hydrogen can be shown to be possible and safe. Most beneficial applications of hydrogen were identified as fuel for heavy transport, especially in the long term, and for production of electricity during power shortage. Identified limitations on practicable potential were determined as lacking regional possibilities for hydrogen production and the lack of a national strategy for hydrogen to provide direction for the development of hydrogen. Overall, it was determined that hydrogen could provide benefit to the energy system of Scania, but that a limiting factor for determining the practicable potential was uncertainties regarding profitability. This is therefore recommended for further investigation.
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