Rätten till naturaprestation : Bortfaller rätten efter det att ett långvarigt embargo har lyfts?
Export is a top priority for Sweden's economy but for Swedish companies it may involve uncomfortable risks of exporting without sincere consideration. When the United Nations Security Council puts an embargo against a country, this often mean an import and export restriction. The thought is to push undemocratic regimes into respecting human rights. When the embargo is in force, however, the parties are not able to fulfill their contractual obligations, which practically means that the agreement will be suspended. The problem is what happens when an embargo is in force for a longer period of time. After the embargo is withdrawn, the price on the market may have changed significantly, which indicates a financial sacrifice for a seller if he has to provide specific performance to the buyer. The question thus is whether the seller, after a prolonged economic sanctions is withdrawn, still is obliged to provide specific performance?
The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) is applicable where both parties are signatories to CISG or by rules of international private law. To require performance as a buyer is a general right in Article 46 CISG, but there are exceptions to this rule in Article 28 CISG. Article 28 CISG states that if one party is entitled to require performance of any obligation by the other party, a court is not bound to enter a judgment for specific performance unless the court would do so under its own law in respect of similar contracts of sale not governed by this Convention. Since CISG advocates a harmonized application of international trade, the right to specific performance cannot be waived just on the basis of Article 28 CISG alone. With regard to good faith in international trade in Article 7 (1) CISG, the principle of reasonableness, which is a general principle that the CISG is based upon in accordance with Article 7 (2) CISG and 7.2.2 (b) UPICC, and with the support of international usage regularity observed in the trade concerned in Article 9 CISG, the right to specific performance does not exist anymore after a prolonged embargo has been withdrawn.
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