Technological Innovation System of Distribution System for Hydrogen applied to Heavy-duty Vehicles : Enabling factors for the development of a distribution system for hydrogen in Sweden
Sammanfattning: Factors that could enable the development of a distribution system for hydrogen applied to heavy-duty vehicles in Sweden are studied in this thesis. Fuel cell and hydrogen technology could be a solution in an electrification mix to reduce the environmental impacts of heavy-duty vehicles (Neef, 2009). However, the distribution system for hydrogen in Sweden is limited, with only five hydrogen refueling stations geographically dispersed (Vätgas Sverige, n.d.). In addition, distribution options at the lowest-cost delivery mode are highly dependent on the hydrogen application, density of demand, quantity to be transported, and distance between the delivery point and the production (Bersani, et al., 2018) To determine what factors could be decisive to develop a distribution system, the technological innovation system framework has been applied in this study. The analysis is carried out with the framework’s system functions. Further, the analysis is based on literature on hydrogen that considers hindering factors and barriers, policy recommendations, lock-in effects, distribution and transportation, and centralized vs. de-centralized systems. Moreover, data has been collected through 11 semi-structured interviews with actors from different sectors, energy companies, truck manufacturers, and researchers, amongst others. The analysis concludes that cross-sectoral collaboration, pilot testing, and governmental support can be enabling factors for the development of a distribution system in Sweden.
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