Effekten av syntetiska cannabinoider med avseende på symtomen av posttraumatiskt stressyndrom : En litteraturstudie om vilken påverkan syntetiska cannabinoider har på symtomen av posttraumatiskt stressyndrom
Sammanfattning: Background - Posttraumatic stress disorder, PTSD, is a complex disease that occurs when different kinds of traumatic events happen. The symptoms are individual and vary due to the kind of traumatic experience and the persons reaction. There are many of us that have experienced various traumatic events such as sexual abuse, war events, assault, or accidents at some point in life, but only a few percent develop PTSD as a consequence. PTSD also often occurs along with other diseases. Common symptoms are flashbacks, involuntary memory images, avoidant behavior, hopelessness, sleeping disorders and the ‘’fight or flight response’’ overactivity. One of the criteria that need to be fulfilled in order to be diagnosed with PTSD is that the symptoms have lasted for at least a month. Usually, the survival instinct is activated when your body is exposed to danger. For people suffering from PTSD the responses to danger and stress are distorted. The process for when a human is exposed to stress starts with the sympathetic nervous system and the HPA-axis that together will lead to a release of ACTH which stimulates the adrenal cortex and releases cortisol in the body. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) consists primarily of CB1 and CB2 receptors as well as endogenous cannabinoids and is important for cognitive and emotional processes. Studies have shown that activating the CB1 receptor shortly after the traumatic event could reduce flashbacks. Tetrahydrocannabidiol has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties as well as a high agonist affinity for CB1 and the CB2 receptors. Cannabidiol (CBD), which is the second component extracted from the cannabis plant, has weaker affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors. The effects of CBD are anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety and antispasmodic. Nabilon is an example of a synthetic CB1 receptor agonist. Today, some evidence for a correlation exists between improved PTSD symptoms and cannabis use. The aim - The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of synthetic cannabinoids on the different symptoms caused by PTSD. Method - This literature review study analyzed five studies and their results of the efficacy of synthetic cannabinoids on the different PTSD symptoms. Three studies included the efficacy of nabilon on different PTSD symptoms. One study evaluates the efficacy of oral THC on the different types of symptoms caused by PTSD. The last study includes the worsening of symptoms of PTSD associated with marijuana use. The article was chosen due to that availability of articles was limited and because it was relevant for the aim of this study even though they did not use synthetic cannabinoids. Results - The results that were obtained from these five studies showed that there was an improvement in the various PTSD symptoms in the treatment of synthetic cannabinoids. A reduction in pain and nightmares were demonstrated together with improved quality of life. One study resulted in increased difficulty of symptoms during the use of marijuana. The five studies showed mild side effects such as dry mouth, headache, and dizziness. Conclusion - In summary, it is hard to draw a general conclusion, but the results that were obtained showed that there is an advantage to use synthetic cannabinoids. Since, it has a beneficial efficacy on the different PTSD symptoms. However, it would be of interest to see if synthetic cannabinoids have a beneficial efficacy and safety in a larger study with a study population including different ages and a longer study period. It could be suggested to use synthetic cannabinoid as a treatment for resistant symptoms caused by PTSD.
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