Handel, ojämlikhet mellan könen och fattigdom
Sammanfattning: In recent decades, more and more countries have opened up to international trade and the effects it has on society is an area that is both studied and discussed to a large extent, without reaching consensus. Understanding the full consequences of trade is important in order to make political decisions and create fair trade agreements. Previously, trade and gender inequality’s impact on poverty have been studied as two separate areas and in previous research we have not found studies examining the relationship between trade, poverty and gender inequality together. The purpose of this study is therefore to combine two areas that have previously been treated separately and to examine how international trade affects poverty and the role of gender inequality in the tiger economies. Tiger economies is a collective name for the rapidly growing economies of Asia and the countries are characterized by liberalized markets and openness to free trade. The study is carried out through a mediation analysis and examines whether inequality between the sexes acts as a mediator in the context of how trade affects poverty. For the estimation, panel data for eight countries over 30 years are used. The dependent variable poverty is measured as household consumption per capita, while trade flow and gender inequality and four other control variables are explanatory variables. The results show that both increased trade and higher gender equality lead to increased household consumption and thus reduced poverty in the tiger economies. The study also shows that gender inequality acts as a mediator for the relationship between trade and poverty, which means that trade leads to a reduction in poverty directly, but also that trade leads to increased female participation in the labor market, which in turn reduces poverty. Gender inequality and trade should therefore be studied together to examine the effect and the exclusion of one of the variables may lead to incorrect conclusions about what affects poverty in the tiger economies.
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