Varför halkar vi efter? – Dagens tillämpning av delningsekonomi inom fastighetsbranschen
Sammanfattning: The aim of this thesis was to research the current status of shared space use. Furthermore, this thesis also aimed to investigate the potential and challenges related to sharing economy in the real estate sector. The thesis focused mainly on existing buildings in Sweden. The aim was to answer the following two research questions: 1. How is sharing economy used in the real estate industry? 2. What challenges lies ahead of the real estate industry regarding shared use in relation to different stakeholder’s business models? The study was devised on the basis of a literature study from different databases, books and online commercial and scientific articles. Qualitative data were collected through interviews and field studies in Malmö, Gothenburg and Stockholm. Four different case studies were chosen through subjective sampling in which commercial premises had been combined with other uses. In order to highlight the challenges and success factors from different perspectives, case studies come from both non-profit and profit business models. Interviews were conducted with different stakeholders in order to create a comprehensive view of the collaborative consumption and shared use. Space sharing in the public sector, which is a non-profit business model, can be traced back to the transfer of activity sites from out-of-school care and recreation to educational properties in order to make the use of space more efficient. Commercial spaces were primarily shared through coworking or multifunctional buildings. Sharing could be done through different time slots or collaborative use of spaces. In the public sector, it was more common that the sharing was through turn-taking in the time dimension. Thus, the public sector divides the space use by time and the private sector by collaborative use of spaces and colocation. There were many incentives for different stakeholders to undertake collaborative use and share spaces. Among the strongest driving forces were the synergies that occurred when under-utilized spaces were being shared, i.e. business opportunities, economical efficiency, and social sustainability. The lack of insurance services limits users’ sharing possibilities of their spaces as there is a lack of trust. In the public sector, this has been approached by dividing the responsibilities for damages on the property and associated costs according to the business hours of the different administrations. The property owner had the primary responsibility for the premises and the administrations were responsible for their own attachments. Similar principle applied to the private sector where the property owner’s insurance covered spaces that were shared between tenants. The property owners assumed that all businesses have their own insurances. Zoning plans complicated the flexibility of use over time as they are legally binding. This means that the municipality is a key player that can promote and enable sharing by using their planning monopoly. Flexible zoning plans allow for new utilizations and joint utilizations for existing properties. One conclusion from the study was that the different stakeholders in the real estate industry need to cooperate for sharing to become the norm. Existing legislation and regulations for rent, tax and insurance need to be investigated. Furthermore, such legislation and regulations need to be clarified to remove ambiguity that exist for shared usage. It is also important to take people’s behavior in consideration and look at what can be done in the municipalities’ planning processes. Tenants demand more flexible office solutions regarding the length of contracts and the possibility to both scale up and scale down the office when needed. The occurrence of flexible contracts has been declined as a consequence of present regulations due to contract duration and protection of the tenant. Furthermore, the Council for Advance Tax Rulings should define the definition of coworking in order to set guidelines for the real estate industry, and this could have an impact on coworking in Sweden. For members of coworking, whether coworking is counted as a service or as a rent, this could change their rights of occupancy and their rights for notice of contract termination. The master thesis came to the conclusion that digitalization would permeate the development of the real estate industry towards more efficient use of space. Digitalization is a prerequisite for the sharing of spaces to grow and to be established in the real estate industry. The practical barriers for shared use are often about providing access, administration and matching of supply and demand, which are problems that can be solved through digitalization. Finally, a key challenge of sharing is changing the sharing culture and human behavior. If the trend goes towards users preferring access rather than ownership, shared use will be further demanded in the future.
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