How to measure the degree of PIT-ness in a credit rating system for a low default portfolio?

Detta är en Master-uppsats från KTH/Matematisk statistik; KTH/Matematisk statistik

Sammanfattning: In order to be compliant with the Basel regulations, banks need to compute two probabilities of default (PDs): point-in-time (PIT) and through-the-cycle (TTC). The aim is to explain fluctuations in the rating system, which are expected to be affected by systematic and idiosyncratic factors. Being able to, in an objective manner, determine whether the rating system is taking the business cycle - i.e the systematic factors - into account when assigning a credit rating to an obligor is useful in order to evaluate PD-models. It is also necessary for banks in order to use their own risk parameters and models instead of standardized models, which is desirable for most banks as it could lower capital requirements. This thesis propose a new measure for the degree of PIT-ness. This measure aims to be especially useful when examining a low default portfolio. The proposed measure is built on a markovian approach of the credit rating system. In order to find a suitable measure for a low default portfolio, the proposed measure takes into account credit rating migrations, the seasonal component of the business cycle and time series analysis. An analysis were performed between two different credit portfolios in order to interpret results. The results demonstrated that the degree of PIT-ness was lower in a low default portfolio in comparison with a sampled portfolio which displayed a greater amount of rating migrations with a larger magnitude. The importance of considering relevant macroeconomic variables to represent the business cycle was mentioned amongst the most important factors to consider in order to receive reliable results given the proposed measure.

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