Machine Learning explainability in text classification for Fake News detection

Detta är en Kandidat-uppsats från Malmö universitet/Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS)

Sammanfattning: Fake news detection gained an interest in recent years. This made researchers try to findmodels that can classify text in the direction of fake news detection. While new modelsare developed, researchers mostly focus on the accuracy of a model. There is little researchdone in the subject of explainability of Neural Network (NN) models constructed for textclassification and fake news detection. When trying to add a level of explainability to aNeural Network model, allot of different aspects have to be taken under consideration.Text length, pre-processing, and complexity play an important role in achieving successfully classification. Model’s architecture has to be taken under consideration as well. Allthese aspects are analyzed in this thesis. In this work, an analysis of attention weightsis performed to give an insight into NN reasoning about texts. Visualizations are usedto show how 2 models, Bidirectional Long-Short term memory Convolution Neural Network (BIDir-LSTM-CNN), and Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers(BERT), distribute their attentions while training and classifying texts. In addition, statistical data is gathered to deepen the analysis. After the analysis, it is concluded thatexplainability can positively influence the decisions made while constructing a NN modelfor text classification and fake news detection. Although explainability is useful, it is nota definitive answer to the problem. Architects should test, and experiment with differentsolutions, to be successful in effective model construction.

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