Solceller på Sysavs återvinningscentraler och avfallsanläggningar – en undersökning av potentialen för produktion av solel

Detta är en Master-uppsats från Lunds universitet/Institutionen för energivetenskaper

Sammanfattning: Todays society is moving towards electrification. This means that more renewable energy is needed. In the southern parts of Sweden the energy consumption is far greater than the production and the electricity prices are rising. Sysav is a company that takes care of the waste and recycling. They have 16 facilities in the south of Skåne, including landfills. Sysav has a vision to contribute to the renewable energy production by installing solar panels on their facilities and landfills. This study aims to examine the conditions for installing solar panels on two chosen facilities. The intent is also to give an idea of the financial investment and whether it is profitable or not. The goal is to present a plan for how solar panels can be used by Sysav, any permits needed, the installation method and also the investment calculations. The investigation is divided into two cases. Case 1 looks at the landfill Måsalycke and case 2 looks at Bunkeflo recycling center. In case 2 the usage of battery storage is also examined. Interviews were conducted with persons involved in solar projects on other landfills, PV-system suppliers and the county administrative board. Visits on the chosen facilities was made to look further into the specific conditions on that site. The possible electricity production was simulated using System advisor model (SAM). This was later used to aid the financial calculations. The calculations used a few different methods such as net present value, Pay-back, internal rate of return and levelized cost of electricity, LCOE. The calculations were made with two different electricity prices, price 1 was based on the average spot price between 2012-2020 and price 2 was based on the average from 2021-2022. In this case price 2 is considerably higher than price 1. The calculations of the recycling central also looked at different levels of self-use, meaning the level of produced electricity to be used directly at the facility. It was shown that the landfill could house a 5 MWp PV-system, resulting in an investment of 39 million SEK. This investment would be profitable if the electricity price stayed at a high level, like price 2. The calculations showed a pay-back time of 6 years, the internal rate of return was 14 \% and the net present value was 79.6 million. The installation off solar panels on the landfill can be made using different methods. It could be made using a ballast system with concrete foundations or a method using plastic boxes. It could also be made using ground screws or the TreeSystem that forms a root system in the ground. However, the supervisory authority of the landfill must approve the installation with the requirement that it does not damage the final coverage of the landfill. The recycling center has the space for a 45 kWp PV-system. This results in an investment of 527 thousand SEK without battery storage and 992 thousand SEK with battery storage. The result showed that using battery storage will not be profitable, because the cost of the battery is too high. The investment without the battery is profitable when using electricity price 2, the higher price. It was also shown that it was profitable if there was a high level of self-use, close to 100 \%. Since the electricity price for buying is higher than for selling a higher level of self-use results in more savings from not having to buy the electricity. The calculations showed that for electricity price 2, depending on the level of self-use the pay-back time was between 7-9 years, where 7 years is for 100 \% self-use. The internal rate of return was between 10-12 \% and the net present value was between 781-983 thousand SEK, where 12 \% and 983 thousand SEK was with 100 \% self-use. The space for solar panel at the recycling central is limited and the available space is not enough to be able to be self-sufficient of electricity during the year. Conclusively, the study showed that solar panels on the landfill and recycling central is profitable if the electricity prices stay at a high level, like in price 2. Even if the electricity price is decrease there are other aspects to consider as well, like the sustainable image it provides or how it uses an otherwise unusable space, that is the landfill, to contribute with something good to the society. However, the high uncertainty of future electricity prices and the solar market makes the investment a financial risk.

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