Kvinnlig könsstympning - En litteraturöversikt om kvinnlig könsstympning och kvinnornas erfarenheter av defibulation och klitorisrekonstruktion
Sammanfattning: Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM/C) is a global public health problem that violates the human rights, as stated in the Universal Declaration of human rights by the United Nations. Despite the major health problems that occurs as a consequence of FGM/C is the area sparsely researched. There is especially a lack of research concerning defibulation and clitoral reconstruction as well as the women's experiences of FGM/C, defibulation and clitoral reconstruction. The purpose of the study was to investigate, analyze and present the current knowledge of women experiences from defibulation and clitoral reconstruction, whilst also presenting possible knowledge gaps. Study design: The data collection was based on the P.I.C.O. model, a format to systematically search evidential articles, where blocks and MeSH terms were used as well as relevant synonyms. The databases used were PubMed (new), Scopus, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The data search included articles in Swedish and English, where the articles were peer-reviewed and relevant with regards to the purpose of the literature review. Whilst reviews or equal were excluded. Results: 15 articles met the inclusion criterion, 12 adopted qualitative approaches and three mixed study designs. Distinct social norms and stigma were related to FGM/C and defibulation/clitoral reconstruction. The result was homogeneous with previous research, which highlight that defibulation and clitoral reconstruction is relevant for women with health problems due to their FGM/C, as well as a great complexity and heterogeneity in the area that should be taken into account. The majority of experiences of defibulation or clitoral reconstruction were positive where most health problems decreased after the procedures. However, it is important to highlight that negative health outcomes have occurred and that the topic is relatively unexplored. Conclusion: The literature review shows that defibulation and clitoral reconstruction are appropriate for some women with FGM/C and the related health problems. Furthermore, the literature review shows that there are large knowledge gaps regarding this field and limited research is available. Thus, the literature review indicates that defibulation and clitoral reconstruction improves the women health with FGM/C. However, more research is needed to be able to indicate safe outcomes.
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