Hälsofrämjande insatser på arbetsplatser – En litteraturstudie om hälsofrämjande arbetsplatsinterventioner med ett organisationsteoretiskt perspektiv
Sammanfattning: Background: A job is a big part of many people’s lives and can affect their health which makes workplaces an important arena for public health work. Research shows the importance of the combination of health promotion with prevention. Despite knowledge in the subject the number of sick leave continues to increase.Aim: The aim of this study was to examine a selection of health promotive interventions that were implemented on Swedish work sites between the years 2004 and 2018 with an organizational theoretical perspective.Method: A literature based study with both quantitative and qualitative studies was performed. Article searches was made in three different data bases, Scopus, Cinahl and Pubmed. The 14 included studies were review based on their quality and further graded using GRADE. The articles were analyzed using a content analysis based on a model by Friberg.Results: All studies were intervention based where health promoting work place efforts were evaluated or implemented. Three different types of interventions were identified, physical activity, education or new ways of work. The interventions were conducted on an individual, organizational or on multiple levels and the majority were performed at female dominated workplaces. The studies showed different results even if they had similar focus, for example education.Discussion: The health promoting interventions had different results even though the included activities were similar. Individual responsibility is not as effective as trying to change the organization. By promoting health on multiple levels a more even result can be achieved and health gaps between groups can be reduced. The majority of the interventions were aimed at women or female-dominated workplaces. The aim of these interventions were to create ways of managing stress instead of dealing with the stress creating factors. According to a mythical perspective, health promoting interventions can be viewed as ready to use concepts and be a way for organizations to acquire legitimacy from their surroundings. However, the strive for legitimacy can be a way for more organizations to be health promotive which could be a positive thing for the employees. Conclusion: It is important to find the underlying factors to the problem relating to the work environment. It can be considered more difficult at first but may lead to more successful results in the long run. It is also important to see health promotion as an investment in the organization.
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