Riskområden för erosion och näringsläckage i Segeåns avrinningsområde

Detta är en Kandidat-uppsats från Lunds universitet/Institutionen för naturgeografi och ekosystemvetenskap

Sammanfattning: Traditionally, soil erosion has been mostly associated with agriculture in semi-arid and tropical areas. Still, soil erosion is a hazard over the whole globe, both on a broad and a small scale. The consequences of soil loss may be both lower productivity on the agricultural fields and also nutrient leaching that leads to a higher level of nitrogen and phosphorous in streams and water bodies. The higher level of nutrients in water bodies may lead to eutrophication which will have negative impacts on flora and fauna. Sweden has the most cultivated land in the southern parts in Scania and therefore this area is most susceptible to soil erosion. The catchment area of the river Segeå is situated in the South West of Scania and is surrounded by agricultural fields. The river is ending in the Öresund area and therefore it is important to prevent nutrient leaching by reducing the risk of soil erosion from the fields surrounding Segeå river. The aim of this report is to identify potential areas of risk for soil erosion and nutrient leaching in the catchment area of the Segeå, by making a risk classification and GIS-analysis. Furthermore the report also suggests actions for reducing the nutrient leaching from soil erosion and also gives a general overview for the various factors influencing soil erosion. There are many actions important to take to be able to reduce the nutrient leaching from agricultural fields, for example buffer zones, cover crops, constructing dams and reservoirs and different management methods. Furthermore it is also important with projects and communication and subventions to farmers for constructing wetlands or planting cover crops. The areas having the highest risk for soil erosion and nutrient leaching are situated on the agricultural fields in the Segeå catchment area. The results from the classification and GIS-analysis show that the areas of highest risk are close to the river, exists on the steepest slopes, at places where the areas of the fields are wide and on the soil types most sensitive to erosion. The combination of these factors shows that the highest risk areas are concentrated in the North East and South West of the catchment area. Consequently it is here the actions against nutrient leaching should be focused.

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