Stereo Camera Pose Estimation to Enable Loop Detection

Detta är en Master-uppsats från Linköpings universitet/Datorseende

Sammanfattning: Visual Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) allows for three dimensionalreconstruction from a camera’s output and simultaneous positioning of the camera withinthe reconstruction. With use cases ranging from autonomous vehicles to augmentedreality, the SLAM field has garnered interest both commercially and academically. A SLAM system performs odometry as it estimates the camera’s movement throughthe scene. The incremental estimation of odometry is not error free and exhibits driftover time with map inconsistencies as a result. Detecting the return to a previously seenplace, a loop, means that this new information regarding our position can be incorporatedto correct the trajectory retroactively. Loop detection can also facilitate relocalization ifthe system loses tracking due to e.g. heavy motion blur. This thesis proposes an odometric system making use of bundle adjustment within akeyframe based stereo SLAM application. This system is capable of detecting loops byutilizing the algorithm FAB-MAP. Two aspects of this system is evaluated, the odometryand the capability to relocate. Both of these are evaluated using the EuRoC MAV dataset,with an absolute trajectory RMS error ranging from 0.80 m to 1.70 m for the machinehall sequences. The capability to relocate is evaluated using a novel methodology that intuitively canbe interpreted. Results are given for different levels of strictness to encompass differentuse cases. The method makes use of reprojection of points seen in keyframes to definewhether a relocalization is possible or not. The system shows a capability to relocate inup to 85% of all cases when a keyframe exists that can project 90% of its points intothe current view. Errors in estimated poses were found to be correlated with the relativedistance, with errors less than 10 cm in 23% to 73% of all cases. The evaluation of the whole system is augmented with an evaluation of local imagedescriptors and pose estimation algorithms. The descriptor SIFT was found to performbest overall, but demanding to compute. BRISK was deemed the best alternative for afast yet accurate descriptor. Conclusions that can be drawn from this thesis is that FAB-MAP works well fordetecting loops as long as the addition of keyframes is handled appropriately.

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