Demokratiseringsprocesser : En komparativ studie av Ghana och Elfenbenskusten

Detta är en Kandidat-uppsats från Umeå universitet/Statsvetenskapliga institutionen

Sammanfattning: Atthe beginning of the 19th century, the world consisted of about ten democracies. During the 1990showever, more than 60 of the world's countries counted as democratized.Intherecent decades, the number of democracies in the world has increased by a great deal. Democracy is, in what Samuel P. Huntington describes in his book "The Third wave" its third democratization wave. The first wave started in 1828 and lasted for almost a hundred years. At the same time as thefirstwave slowed down, the first wave of oppression began with the start of the great depression of the 1920s. Atthe end of the Second World War, the second, and short-lived, democratization wave began. It lasted until the mid-1970s. The third, and lastwave,as described by Huntington,is the one that has been going on since 1974 until his book was publishedin 1991. In thisthird democratization wave, states went from having a non-democratic rule of law to a democratic system with free elections. Many countries went from being dictatorships to becoming democracies. In the opposing waves, fewer countries went from a democratic government to a more authoritativeonethan in the democratization waves. After the decolonization of the 1960s, the vast majority of African states had embraced authoritarian non-democratic governance and the continent was characterized by one-party states. One of the few countries that followed this wave of democratization was Ghana, a country that counts as a democratic highlightamong dictatorships and hybrid-regimes in the region. Ghana’s peaceful many transitions of powers since their democratization process began in the mid-1990sis standing out amongst their neighbors. What has caused Ghana to succeed? Can Huntington's third democratization wave say anythingabout the reason? And why have not more countries been democratically successful?

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