Modelling the power system of Bolivia in order to support the achievement of SDG7
Sammanfattning: Electricity is becoming a vital part of today's society. With improving living standards in developing countries, the demand for electricity is increasing within the public as well as the private sector. Developing countries often lack a well-designed electricity grid and also utilize limited energy resources, like gas and oil, when generating electricity. These resources are not only limited but, when burnt for the reason of generating electricity, greenhouse gas emissions are emitted in the atmosphere, causing global warming. A shift from fossil fuels, like gas and oil, to renewable resources such as wind and solar, is therefore crucial to prevent global warming and achieve sustainable development. The Bolivian government has formally expressed an ambition to achieve social and environmental development by adopting UN's 17 sustainable development goals (SDG). SDG number 7, “Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all “ aims to provide energy that preserves environmental and socio-economic sustainability. Today, a majority of the Bolivian population have access to electricity, but the usage in kWh per capita is low, and the primary source for electricity generation is natural gas. The aim of this paper is to analyse which economic and technical factors are needed for Bolivia as a country to achieve UN’s SDG7. A literature review of Bolivia as a country and its power system is completed to understand the general state of Bolivia and the current electricity situation. Furthermore, a field study in Cochabamba is conducted to gather information and data of current and projected power plants as well as demand and future expansion plans of power plants, in which together with previous studies provides a foundation for a model of Bolivia's power system. The modelling will be done using the long-term energy planning tool OSeMOSYS and its interface MoManI. With the collected data and information, different scenarios are modelled to investigate how the share of renewable energy sources can be increased. The final results show that Bolivia has high potential in achieving SD7 and that hydroelectric power will presumably be the most contributing factor if the goal is met. The amount of CO 2 will therefore decrease, however, the results also showed that large capital investments must be made in order to achieve SDG 7.
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