Determination of the conversion factor for the estimation of effective dose in lungs, urography and cardiac procedures
Patient dose in diagnostic radiology is usually expressed in terms of organ dose and effective dose. The latter is used as a measure of the stochastic risk. Determinations of these doses are obtained by measurements (Thermoluminescent dosemeters) or by calculations (Monte Carlo simulation).
Conversion factors for the calculation of effective dose from dose-area product (DAP) values are commonly used to determine radiation dose in conventional x-ray imaging to realize radiation risks for different investigations, and for different ages. The exposure can easily be estimated by converting the DAP into an effective dose.
The aim of this study is to determine the conversion factor in procedures by computing the ratio between effective dose and DAP for fluoroscopic cardiac procedures in adults and for conventional lung and urography examinations in children.
Thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD) were placed in an anthropomorphic phantom (Alderson Rando phantom) and child phantom (one year old) in order to measure the organ dose and compute the effective dose. A DAP meter was used to measure dose-area product.
MC calculations of radiation transport in mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms were used to obtain the effective dose for the same conditions with DAP as input data.
The deviation between the measured and calculated data was less than 10 %. The conversion factor for cardiac procedures varies between 0.19 mSvGy-1 cm-2 and 0.18 mSvGy-1 cm-2, for TLD respective MC. For paediatric simulation of a one year old phantom the average conversion factor for urography was 1.34 mSvGy-1 cm-2 and 1,48 mSvGy-1cm-2 for TLD respective MC. This conversion factor will decrease to 1.07 mSvGy-1 cm-2 using the TLD method, if the new ICRP (ICRP Publication 103) weighting factors were used to calculate the effective dose.
For lung investigations, the conversion factor for children was 1.75 mSvGy-1 cm-2 using TLD, while this value was 1.62 mSvGy-1 cm-2 using MC simulation. The conversion value increased to 2.02 mSvGy-1 cm-2 using ICRP’s new recommendation for tissue weighting factors and child phantom.
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