Kan tillskott av omega-3 och omega-6 ha en adjuvant effekt vid behandling av ADHD hos barn och ungdomar?
Sammanfattning: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric disability and about 5 % of all children and adolescents in Sweden have been diagnosed with ADHD. The global prevalence is 5,3-7,1 %. Children diagnosed with ADHD early in life have a higher risk of ending up with addiction and criminality later in life. Common symptoms of ADHD are hyperactivity, impulsivity and difficulty in maintaining the attention. The pathophysiology of ADHD has not been established yet and is still unknown. Imbalance in neurotransmitters, proinflammatory effects, genes and diet are examples of some factors that may cause ADHD or give symptoms of ADHD. Analyses of blood samples indicate lower levels of omega-3-fatty acids among people with ADHD. Omega-3 is a polyunsaturated fatty acid and has an important roll for the brain development and preserves normal brain function. The present diet pattern is lacking omega-3-fatty acids and the people are not getting enough omega-3 that is required from the food, which could contribute to an unbalance of fatty acid levels in the body. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the potential of omega-3 and omega-6 as monotherapy and adjuvant in traditional drug treatment for children and adolescents with ADHD. Method used for this literature thesis was to search for relevant articles from the database PubMed. Five articles were selected and reviewed. The results of this study indicate that omega-3 and omega-6 as adjuvants have improved the attention deficits among the ADHD children. A combination of methylphenidate with, omega-3 and omega-6 increased the compliance, due to fewer severe side effects and also a good response to the treatment. Higher levels of total omega-3 gave a better reading capacity in children. Omega-3 can also decrease the inflammation and oxidative stress, which is indicated in the pathogenesis of ADHD. This literature review suggests that omega-3 and/or omega-6 can help to improve the ADHD symptoms and prevent the development of ADHD. The articles had few participants and more participants are needed to gain more power to the results. More research is required before omega-3 and/or omega-6 can be prescribed for children with ADHD.
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