Privatiseringen av de växtgenetiska allmänningarna : Konsekvenserna av regimkomplexet kring växtgenetiska resurser för bönders rättigheter och matsäkerhet
This thesis discusses the global regime complex concerning the management of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, and how different regimes concerning these resources cooperate or stand in opposition to each other. Because of changes in US patent law and the establishment of TRIPS, patent claims over plant genetic resources has increased dramatically globally. This, amongst other things, in turn has lead to the development of CBD which in turn lead to the creation of access and benefit laws in many countries. To create a free flow of genetic resources for food and agriculture the ITPGRFA, with its multilateral system, were negotiated. The aim of this thesis is to investigate which consequences the regime complex concerning plant genetic resources for food and agriculture can have on the rights of small farmers, agricultural research and food security in the global South. The thesis shows how patents and strict access laws creates a situation where more and more actors has exclusive rights which excludes others from using these, for the global food security, essential resources. Further it is shown that there also are processes going on within the UPOV that risk to take away farmers right to save seeds, and thereby make them dependent on the more and more monopolistic global seed markets dominated by a few multinational corporations. It is established that ITPGRFAs multilateral system is an opening in this hyperownership of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture; but that the international community at the same time has to see to that the patent claims on plant genetic resources not violate farmers’ rights to their resources.
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