HYDROGEN-FIRED GAS TURBINE FOR POWER GENERATION WITH EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION : Emission and economic evaluation of pure hydrogen compare to natural gas
Sammanfattning: The member states of European Union aim to promote the reduction of harmful emissions. Emissions from combustion processes cause effects on human health and pose environmental issues, for example by increasing greenhouse effect. There are two ways to reduce emissions; one is to promote renewable energy sources and the other to utilize more effectively the available fossil fuels until a long-term solution is available. Hence, it is necessary to strive for CO2 mitigation technologies applied to fossil fuels. Low natural gas prices together with high energy efficiency have made gas turbines popular in the energy market. But, gas turbine fired with natural gas come along with emissions of CO2, NOx and CO. However, these disadvantages can be eliminated by using gas turbine with precombustion CO2 capture, separating carbon from the fuel by using fuel reforming process and feeding pure hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen fired gas turbines are used in two applications such as a gas turbine with pre-combustion CO2 capture and for renewable power plants where hydrogen is stored in case as a backup plan. Although the CO2 emissions are reduced in a hydrogen fired gas turbine with a pre-combustion CO2 capture, there are still several challenges such as high flame temperatures resulting in production of thermal NOx. This project suggests a method for application of hydrogen fired gas turbine, using exhaust gas recirculation to reduce flame temperature and thus reducing thermal NOx. A NOx emission model for a hydrogen-fired gas turbine was built from literature data and used to select the best operating conditions for the plant. In addition, the economic benefits of switching from natural gas to pure hydrogen are reported. For the techno-economic analysis, investment costs and operating costs were taken from the literature, and an economic model was developed. To provide sensitivity analysis for the techno-economic calculation, three cases were studied. Literature review was carried out on several journal articles and websites to gain understanding on hydrogen and natural gas fired gas turbines. Results showed that, in the current state, pure hydrogen has high delivery cost both in the US and Europe. While it’s easy to access natural gas at low cost, therefore in the current state gas turbine fired with natural gas are more profitable than hydrogen fired gas turbine. But, if targeted hydrogen prices are reached while fuel reforming process technology are developed in the coming future the hydrogen fired gas turbine will compete seriously with natural gas.
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