Syntes och karakterisering av ogiftiga organiska metall halid halvledare för solceller

Detta är en Master-uppsats från KTH/Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE)

Sammanfattning:

The endeavor to have more efficient solar cells and as environmentally beneficial as possible are the driving forces for this work. The way to reach this is by research to better the understanding of the mechanisms and parameters that govern the performance of solar cells. New materials are essential to develop because the current ones lack stability and are water, temperature and UV-radiation sensitive. In this work the lead (Pb2+), which is poisonous and hazardous is intended to be replaced in the organic metal halide (OMH) perovskite structure. This is tested with gold or silver combined with bismuth and silver by itself. Also trimethylsulfonium gold or silver iodides are investigated. The methylammonium cation is also substituted to cesium. The perovskite material both absorbs light and transports charges in the solar cells. Materials based on AuI/AgI, BiI3 and CH3NH3I and AuI/AgI and [Me3S]I and AgI, BiI3 and CsI were synthesized and analyzed by XRD on thin film and mesoporous substrate and Raman spectroscopy to determine material structure and bonding. J-V measurements were performed to see the function in solar cells. After this conductivity and absorption parameters were determined by an electrical conductivity test and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy.

XRD measurements indicate that the perovskite structure could have been obtained because the materials match with the XRD spectra of [20] foremost T3, T5 and T6, Cs1 and Cs2. In T7 some new structure is formed. The bismuth could be partially substituted by silver as the metal cation. The samples are quite amorphous, but still containing crystalline peaks, the product material could be a mixture of a crystalline and an amorphous phase. The crystalline phase could have the desired perovskite structure. To have mesoporous TiO2 as substrate seem to enhance a more crystalline structured material. All the materials seem to have formed some new structures because the pure reactants does not seem to be present, exceptions could be P1 and T1 that contained AuI. The change of cation from methylamine to cesium though results in a shift of the peak positions because of the change of cation size as in [20], but the structure is most likely the same.

Raman spectroscopy indicate that there is a change in structure, some new bond being present, when increasing the methylamine ratio for the presumed methylammonium silver bismuth iodide perovskites. This concerns materials T5, T6, T7 with increasing ratio of methylamine. This new bond is most pronounced in T7 where the methylamine content is the highest. Both Silver and bismuth iodide bonds seem to be present and cannot be coupled to be the pure reactants recrystallizing and some new bonds of these are present in all materials to some extent. The organic bond vibration has low intensity and might indicate that there is not so much organic cation present in the product and thus the probability of having the desired product anion decreases.

The solar cells made with Spiro-OMeTAD were 700-4000 times more efficient than those made with Sulphur polymer HTM.

Solar cells made with Spiro-OMeTAD as HTM gives slightly higher efficiency when increasing the methylammonium cation ratio. For cesium as cation the combined metal cation constellation with bismuth and silver gives a little higher efficiency than bismuth alone. Methylammonium as cation gives a higher efficiency than cesium.

Solar cells made with Sulphur polymer HTM show approximately 3-30 times higher efficiency with methylammonium as cation compared to cesium as cation. HTM material seem to affect the perovskite material making some of the cells completely transparent and some of them paler, water in the solvent chlorobenzene can be a possible explanation. The transparency can be the reason for the low efficiency obtained for the solar cells. Also the measurement methodology of these solar cells can also have been false, measuring the contacts, and the etching procedure could be another source of this.

The solar cells had quite low efficiencies compared to [20], although same presumed material and procedure has been used and thus there might be something wrong in the accuracy of the manufacturing. The cells should probably been made several times and possible sources of error should be analyzed and corrected for.

The materials were all relatively conductive. P1 gave the highest conductivity, almost three times higher than for methylammonium lead iodide that has a conductivity of 1,1x10-4 s/cm [3]. Increasing the methylammonium ratio gave an increase of the conductivity both with bismuth and silver as metal cations and silver alone. The increase of the methylammonium ratio might result in a new structure formed which has lattice planes that are more conductive. A change of gold to silver for the trimethylsulfonium iodide materials gave a large decrease in conductivity.

The materials have different absorption curves meaning that they have different bandgaps and this indicates differences in structure. The bandgaps of all materials are indirect contrary to what is proven to be the case for perovskites that are believed to have direct bandgaps in general. To have indirect bandgaps requires a shift in momentum in the electronic transitions and is not as beneficial as having direct bandgaps. Compared to methylammonium lead iodide that has a direct bandgap of 1,6 eV, the bandgaps are at least 0,5 eV higher and range between 2,2-2,36 eV. P1 had a low bandgap of 1,6 eV meaning it absorbs a wide range of wavelengths.

The conductivity does not seem to be the obstacle and the cells that are not transparent absorb light. It is highly possible that the low solar cell performance, at least to a certain extent, has to do with the production process. The low scan rate could also affect the low efficiencies and HTM Spiro-OMeTAD should be used.

Currently the efficiency of the perovskite materials with silver/bismuth, gold/bismuth and silver are too low, and not able to substitute lead in the perovskite structure solar cells. Neither trimethylsulfonium gold or silver iodide cells nor cesium perovskites have enough efficiency at present. The conductivities for the materials are promising and the materials that are not completely transparent absorb light.

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