Low complexity algorithms for faster-than-Nyquistsign : Using coding to avoid an NP-hard problem
Sammanfattning: This thesis is an investigation of what happens when communication links are pushed towards their limits and the data-bearing-pulses are packed tighter in time than previously done. This is called faster-than-Nyquist (FTN) signaling and it will violate the Nyquist inter-symbol interference criterion, implying that the data-pulsesare no longer orthogonal and thus that the samples at the receiver will be dependent on more than one of the transmitted symbols. Inter-symbol interference (ISI) has occurred and the consequences of it are studied for the AWGN-channel model. Here it is shown that in order to do maximum likelihood estimation on these samples the receiver will face an NP-hard problem. The standard algorithm to make good estimations in the ISI case is the Viterbi algorithm, but applied on a block with N bits and interference among K bits thecomplexity is O(N '2K), hence limiting the practical applicability. Here, a precoding scheme is proposed together with a decoding that reduce the estimation complexity. By applying the proposed precoding/decoding to a data block of length N the estimation can be done in O(N2) operations preceded by a single off-line O(N3) calculation. The precoding itself is also done in O(N2)operations, with a single o ff-line operation of O(N3) complexity. The strength of the precoding is shown in simulations. In the first it was tested together with turbo codes of code rate 2/3 and block lengthof 6000 bits. When sending 25% more data (FTN) the non-precoded case needed about 2.5 dB higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to have the same error rate as the precoded case. When the precoded case performed without any block errors, the non-precoded case still had a block error rate almost equal to 1. We also studied the scenario of transmission with low latency and high reliability. Here, 600 bits were transmitted with a code rate of 2/3, and hence the target was to communicate 400 bits of data. Applying FTN with doublepacking, that is transmitting 1200 bits during the same amount of time, it was possible to lower the code rate to 1/3 since only 400 bits of data was to be communicated. This technique greatly improves the robustness. When the FTN case performed error free, the classical Nyquist case still had a block error rate of 0.19. To reach error free performance the Nyquist case needed 1.25 dB higher SNR compared to the precoded FTN case with lower code rate.
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