Instance Segmentation of Multiclass Litter and Imbalanced Dataset Handling : A Deep Learning Model Comparison
Sammanfattning: Instance segmentation has a great potential for improving the current state of littering by autonomously detecting and segmenting different categories of litter. With this information, litter could, for example, be geotagged to aid litter pickers or to give precise locational information to unmanned vehicles for autonomous litter collection. Land-based litter instance segmentation is a relatively unexplored field, and this study aims to give a comparison of the instance segmentation models Mask R-CNN and DetectoRS using the multiclass litter dataset called Trash Annotations in Context (TACO) in conjunction with the Common Objects in Context precision and recall scores. TACO is an imbalanced dataset, and therefore imbalanced data-handling is addressed, exercising a second-order relation iterative stratified split, and additionally oversampling when training Mask R-CNN. Mask R-CNN without oversampling resulted in a segmentation of 0.127 mAP, and with oversampling 0.163 mAP. DetectoRS achieved 0.167 segmentation mAP, and improves the segmentation mAP of small objects most noticeably, with a factor of at least 2, which is important within the litter domain since small objects such as cigarettes are overrepresented. In contrast, oversampling with Mask R-CNN does not seem to improve the general precision of small and medium objects, but only improves the detection of large objects. It is concluded that DetectoRS improves results compared to Mask R-CNN, as well does oversampling. However, using a dataset that cannot have an all-class representation for train, validation, and test splits, together with an iterative stratification that does not guarantee all-class representations, makes it hard for future works to do exact comparisons to this study. Results are therefore approximate considering using all categories since 12 categories are missing from the test set, where 4 of those were impossible to split into train, validation, and test set. Further image collection and annotation to mitigate the imbalance would most noticeably improve results since results depend on class-averaged values. Doing oversampling with DetectoRS would also help improve results. There is also the option to combine the two datasets TACO and MJU-Waste to enforce training of more categories.
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