Transportinfrastruktursatsningars påverkan på fastighetsvärden
Sammanfattning: In connection with the planned high-speed rail links between Stockholm and Gothenburg / Malmö, the government has appointed a committee to negotiate a co-financing solutions for the project. This group, Sverigeförhandlingen, was also commissioned by the government to draw up a bill for how property owners, who benefit from public investment, could voluntarily return parts of this value increase back to society, to be used as funding source for the project. "Value capture" was the result of the negotiations of Sverigeförhandlingen and the government adopted a legislative amendment in 2017, which states that municipalities should be entitled to negotiate a development agreement on co-financing compensation. This co-financing compensation should be based on the value creation of real estate when the government builds infrastructure, and that property owners can then return this value increase to the government as compensation. The law is created to co-finance the high-speed railroad, but could also be used on other infrastructure projects around the country. The purpose of this report is to investigate whether and how the real estate value has changed in connection with commuter train traffic developed in a region and thus get an answer to whether a value increase actually occurs as assumed by the Value Capture Act. In order to determine if property values actually change when transport infrastructure is built, an analysis has been implemented on how property value has been affected when a commuter train station has been built. The method of analysis is a difference-in-difference estimate performed by regression analysis. The analysis is limited to smaller agglomerations in the Skåne region, that have recently received a train station. Sales of houses and tenant owned apartments that have taken place in the selected smaller urban areas are divided into two different regression models. A number of reference areas are also included, where train stations have not been built, to investigate the station's impact on property prices. The result indicated that there has been a negative impact on the value of houses in the proximity of the new station in smaller urban areas. This may be because commotion from the new station has a greater negative impact than the positive accessibility effect. For tenant owned apartments, a small positive impact on the price has been discerned. However, sensitivity analysis suggests that only a part of the estimated effect is attributable to the infrastructure investment. The price has probably been affected by many other crucial factors, which are not related to a new station.
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