Kan en växtbaserad kost ad libitum leda till viktnedgång hos personer med övervikt och fetma?
Sammanfattning: AbstractTitle: Can a plant-based diet ad libitum lead to weight loss in overweightor obese people?Author: Katarina Johnsson, Sofia Knipström and Nanette Jensen SandbergSupervisor: Therese KarlssonExaminer: Jenny Van OdjikProgramme: Programme in dietetics, 180/240 ECTSType of paper: Bachelor’s thesis in clinical nutrition, 15 higher education creditsDate: 04-01-2021Background:The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide. Suffering fromoverweight and obesity carries increased risks such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetesand certain types of cancer. Previous studies have shown that people who follow a plant-baseddiet rarely suffer from obesity.Objective: The purpose of this systematic review article is to investigate whether there isevidence that a plant-based diet ad libitum can lead to weight loss in overweight or obese peoplein comparison with other diets ad libitum.Search strategy: A literature search was conducted in Scopus and Pubmed. MeSh terms were used to make the search more comprehensive.Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in English, performed in adults ≥ 18years of age and BMI ≥25. The intervention diet had to be plant-based and the intervention last for a period of at least twelve weeks. The control diet had to include animally derived food products. The exclusion criteria were energy restriction, studies in which the participants alreadyfollowed a plant-based diet, pregnant or lactating.Data collection and analysis: The search resulted in 156 and 118 hits in Pubmed and Scopusrespectively. Four articles were discovered via other paths. A total of 16 articles were read in fulltext. Four articles met the criteria and were assessed independently by three reviewers for the riskof bias according to a template from SBU. The strength of evidence for the outcome measure wasgraded with the template “Underlag för sammanvägd bedömning” which the University of Gothenburg developed according to GRADE.Main results: The risk for bias was assessed to be low in three studies and moderate in one. In total, there were 435 participants. In all studies, the intervention plant based diet led to a statistically significant weight-loss.Conclusions: There is moderate reliability of the weighted results (+++) that a low-fat plant-based diet ad libitum can lead to weight loss in overweight/obese people. Further studies examining the effect of a vegan diet on weight loss are needed.
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