Simulation-Based Portfolio Optimization with Coherent Distortion Risk Measures
Sammanfattning: This master's thesis studies portfolio optimization using linear programming algorithms. The contribution of this thesis is an extension of the convex framework for portfolio optimization with Conditional Value-at-Risk, introduced by Rockafeller and Uryasev. The extended framework considers risk measures in this thesis belonging to the intersecting classes of coherent risk measures and distortion risk measures, which are known as coherent distortion risk measures. The considered risk measures belonging to this class are the Conditional Value-at-Risk, the Wang Transform, the Block Maxima and the Dual Block Maxima measures. The extended portfolio optimization framework is applied to a reference portfolio consisting of stocks, options and a bond index. All assets are from the Swedish market. The returns of the assets in the reference portfolio are modelled with elliptical distribution and normal copulas with asymmetric marginal return distributions. The portfolio optimization framework is a simulation-based framework that measures the risk using the simulated scenarios from the assumed portfolio distribution model. To model the return data with asymmetric distributions, the tails of the marginal distributions are fitted with generalized Pareto distributions, and the dependence structure between the assets are captured using a normal copula. The result obtained from the optimizations is compared to different distributional return assumptions of the portfolio and the four risk measures. A Markowitz solution to the problem is computed using the mean average deviation as the risk measure. The solution is the benchmark solution which optimal solutions using the coherent distortion risk measures are compared to. The coherent distortion risk measures have the tractable property of being able to assign user-defined weights to different parts of the loss distribution and hence value increasing loss severities as greater risks. The user-defined loss weighting property and the asymmetric return distribution models are used to find optimal portfolios that account for extreme losses. An important finding of this project is that optimal solutions for asset returns simulated from asymmetric distributions are associated with greater risks, which is a consequence of more accurate modelling of distribution tails. Furthermore, weighting larger losses with increasingly larger weights show that the portfolio risk is greater, and a safer position is taken.
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