Förebyggande folkhälsoarbete avseende munhälsa - En litteraturstudie om interventioner och teoretiska utgångspunkter för att förebygga karies hos barn och unga
Sammanfattning: Background: Dental health in Sweden is relatively good, but caries is a growing problem in groups of lower socio-economic status. Dental health care for children and adolescents is free in Sweden and it is of great importance to implement good dental hygiene early on in life. The dental health care system needs to work more through living habits to prevent caries. Therefore it is of interest to investigate which interventions have taken place and what effects they have had on dental health.Aim: The aim of this literature review was to investigate the effects of health promoting interventions whose aim were to prevent caries in children and adolescents.Method: Literature review. Data was collected in PubMed and Scopus. Quantitative and qualitative articles were assessed and graded in accordance to SBU/GRADE. A total of 13 articles were reviewed through content analysis.Results: The aim of each intervention study was to prevent caries in children and adolescents and to promote good dental health. The interventions were categorized into three different categories: the importance of brushing your teeth and the use of fluor; interventions targeting risk groups in areas of poor socio-economic status; and interventions based on the interaction between knowledge, attitude and behaviour. Several interventions showed effects on the prevalence of caries and/or changes in behaviour regarding oral health. The interventions had in common that their aims were to improve living habits connected to oral hygiene and diet. Included in the interventions were teaching or counselling on oral health through change models based on knowledge, attitude and behaviour. The theoretical framework was primarily cognitive behavioural strategies.Conclusion: The most common aim of the interventions was to affect habits surrounding oral hygiene, primarily brushing your teeth and the use of fluor toothpaste. Promotive dental health care is mostly the encouragement of self-care, which is why parents and care givers play a vital role in promoting healthy living habits at a young age.
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