Does eating frequency correlate with overweight and obesity among Swedish men and women?
Sammanfattning: Title: Does eating frequency correlate with overweight and obesity among Swedish men and women? Course: MED730, Research thesis in Clinical Nutrition, 30 ECTS Level: Second Cycle Semester/year: St 2017 Supervisor: Anna-Karin Lindroos Examiner: Frode Slinde Keywords: Eating frequency, overweight, energy intake, macronutrients _______________________________________________________________________________________ Background: Obesity is an increasing problem worldwide and it increases the risk for many diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. An increased total energy intake due to an increased eating frequency has been noted by several studies, and this is one factor discussed as contributing to the obesity epidemic The existing evidence about eating frequency and BMI is however conflicting. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate if eating frequency among Swedish men and women from a national dietary survey is associated with overweight or obesity, reported energy and macronutrient intake. Method: Data for this secondary analysis was collected from the Riksmaten 2010-11 survey, a cross-sectional/observational survey. The Riksmaten method is a web based four-day food record. A total of 1797 participants completed the food record and a background questionnaire including height, weight and physical activity. Statistical tests were independent t-test, chi-square and spearman correlations. Result: Mean eating frequency was 4.5 for men and 4.7 for women (p<0.001). Eating frequency was not significantly correlated with BMI, but with energy intake for both men (rs=0.45) and women (rs=0.45). Energy intake was not significantly correlated with BMI. Eating frequency was correlated with a higher percent energy from carbohydrates and fiber, and a lower percent energy from protein and fats. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that eating frequency was not correlated with BMI, however it was correlated with a higher energy intake and macronutrient composition. The different definitions of an eating occasion make it difficult to compare the results to other studies. Future studies should agree on using one set definition for an eating occasion and also evaluate the type of foods eaten. Longitudinal and interventional studies should be made to find if eating frequency does affect BMI.
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