Hydrogen Production and Storage Optimization based on Technical and Financial Conditions : A study of hydrogen strategies focusing on demand and integration of wind power.
Sammanfattning: There has recently been an increased interest in hydrogen, both as a solution for seasonal energy storage but also for implementations in various industries and as fuel for vehicles. The transition to a society less dependent on fossil fuels highlights the need for new solutions where hydrogen is predicted to play a key role. This project aims to investigate technical and economic outcomes of different strategies for production and storage of hydrogen based on hydrogen demand and source of electricity. This is done by simulating the operation of different systems over a year, mapping the storage level, the source of electricity, and calculating the levelized cost of hydrogen (LCOH). The study examines two main cases. The first case is a system integrated with offshore wind power for production of hydrogen to fuel the operations in the industrial port Gävle Hamn. The second case examines a system for independent refueling stations where two locations with different electricity prices and traffic flows are analyzed. Factors such as demand, electricity prices, and component costs are investigated through simulating cases as well as a sensitivity analysis. Future potential sources of income are also analyzed and discussed. The results show that using an alkaline electrolyzer (AEL) achieves the lowest LCOH while PEM electrolyzer is more flexible in its operation which enables the system to utilize more electricity from the offshore wind power. When the cost of wind electricity exceeds the average electricity price on the grid, a higher share of wind electricity relative to electricity from the grid being utilized in the production results in a higher LCOH. The optimal design of the storage depends on the demand, where using vessels above ground is the most beneficial option for smaller systems and larger systems benefit financially from using a lined rock cavern (LRC). Hence, the optimal design of a system depends on the demand, electricity source, and ultimately on the purpose of the system. The results show great potential for future implementation of hydrogen systems integrated with wind power. Considering the increased share of wind electricity in the energy system and the expected growth of the hydrogen market, these are results worth acknowledging in future projects.
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