En annan tid : Definitioner av tid i franska uppslagsverk, 1690-1835
Sammanfattning: Another time. Definitions of time in French encyclopedias, 1690-1835 The point of departure for this study is the common conception that the idea of time became "modern" in the late 18th century, meaning among other things a new, future-oriented and empowered individual. Such a view has been expressed by scholars like Lynn Hunt, Lucian Hölscher, François Hartog, Dan Edelstein as well as Reinhart Koselleck. This thesis investigates whether such a transformation is visible in eight French encyclopedias, published between 1690 and 1835. Definitions of time-related key-words are studied from a perspective of conceptual history and discourse analysis. The result of the study indicates a change in the notion of time. However, this change does not concur with the presumed breakthrough of "modernity". The dominant change is rather words that disappear during the period. The study argues that the dichotomy of time versus eternity was questioned, which changed the expectations. Definitions eventually turned away from a predetermined future, however they did not include an individual freedom to act. A new temporal consciousness is visible with the update of history, as pointed out by Koselleck. Mythology was mocked when definitions underlined rationality. The texts substituted religion with science. Diversity between individual definitions is visible mostly during the middle of the 18th century. Finally, the study discusses a possible time lag for encyclopedias used as witnesses of a discourse.
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