Effekten av proteintillskott på kroppssammansättning vid viktnedgång hos överviktiga och obesa
Sammanfattning: Abstract Title: The effect of protein supplements on body composition during weight loss in overweight and obese adults - A systematic review articleAuthor: Jonny Trinh and Tilda OlssonSupervisor: Therese KarlssonExaminer: Anna WinkvistProgramme: Programme in dietetics, 180/240 ECTSType of paper: Bachelor’s thesis in clinical nutrition, 15 higher education creditsDate: 2021-04-01Background: Overweight and obesity have turned into a global epidemic in recent decades, where the risk of comorbidity is increasing. Treatment of overweight and obesity includes lifestyle changes, where diet and physical activity are paramount. But there are negative side effects of weight loss with loss of both fat-free mass and fat mass. Protein supplements have been proposed to counteract these negative effects. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the use of protein supplements during weight loss. Objective: The objective of this systematic review is to investigate whether a complete protein supplement has any effect on body composition during weight loss in adults who are overweight and obese, and thereby possibly contribute to the current literature. Search strategy: A systematic literature search was carried out in the databases PubMed and Scopus and through "snowballing" of two meta-analyses to find a basis for the overview. The search included MeSH terms like “Dietary Supplements” and “Weight Loss”, synonyms, and free text words. Selection criteria: Inclusion criteria were randomised controlled trials written in Swedish or English and done in humans, adults between 18–70 years, overweight or obese, complete protein supplement, intentional weight loss with caloric restriction and body composition measured with Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. Exclusion criteria were bariatric surgery as a weight loss method and studies where resistance training was included as an intervention.Data collection and analysis: Nine studies were selected for assessment of risk of bias according to SBU's template. Five studies were excluded due to high risk of bias. The certainty of evidence was assessed according to GRADE. Main results: Three of four studies showed no significant effect on fat-free mass or fat mass between the intervention and control group, while one study found a significant positive effect of whey protein on fat-free mass and fat mass. Conclusions: This systematic review concludes that protein supplements have no effect on body composition during weight loss in adults who are overweight and obese. The summarised results indicate low certainty of scientific evidence (++).
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