Ukraїnas självständighet 1917 i svensk press 1917–1918

Detta är en Kandidat-uppsats från Uppsala universitet/Historiska institutionen

Författare: Leo Bergman; [2017]

Nyckelord: Ukraine Peace; Ukraїna; Ukraine; independence; 1917; 1918; independence movement; peace treaty; invasion; invasion war; independence war; freedom war; freedom struggle; Dagens Nyheter; Svenska Dagbladet; holodomor; 1921; 1923; Norrskensflamman; Moskali; Dalpilen; Kalmar tidning; Göteborgs Aftonblad; Aftonbladet; Kyiv; Odesa; Charkiv; Dnipro; Crimea; revolution; UNR; Ukraine’s National Republic; press; swedish press; press survey; press study; communism; leninism; Moksel; genocide; Petrograd; coup d état; CHEKA; nkvd; Moskau; GPU; KGB; lenin; Red Army; Soviet; Soviet Union; bolsheviks; socialists; Moscovia; red terror; communist terror; SSU; socialdemocrats; red guardian; red guard; white guardian; black guard; Finland; Sweden; Finnish independence movement; terrorist organization; commission; civil war; invasion; genocide; proletarian; bolshevik terror; cadets; moscovian threat; russian threat; muscovites; Pultava; Poltava; Tauria; Katerynoslaw; Chernihiv; Ottokar Czernin; Weimar republic; Deutsches Reich; interim government; national hero; mensheviks; maximalists; minimalists; provisional government; Rada; supremacy; central powers; Germany; Deutschland; German Empire; Kaiser Wilhelm; Treaty of Brest-Litovsk; Belarus; communist propaganda; Mohilev; peace negotiation; Caucasus; Cuban; Don; Ukrajina; UkrajinaFreden; Ukraїna; Ukraina; självständighet; 1917; 1918; självständighetsrörelse; Tidningsuppsats; presstudie; pressundersökning; tidningsstudie; dagspress; rikspress; Dagens Nyheter; Svenska Dagbladet; Norrskensflamman; Moskali; Dalpilen; Holodomor; 1921; 1923; Kalmar tidning; Göteborgs Aftonblad; Aftonbladet; Kommunism; Sovjet; bolsjeviker; Petrograd; Krim; Charkiv; Odesa; Dnipro; Kyjiv; Revolution; Leninism; statskupp; TJEKA; nkvd; GPU; KGB; lenin; invasionskrig; invasion; fredsavtal; socialister; kommunister; röda armén; röd terror; kommunistisk terror; SSU; socialdemokrater; rödgardister; vitgardister; svarta gardet; Finland; Sverige; finska självständighetsrörelsen; terrororganisation; kommission; inbördeskrig; folkmord; självständighetskrig; proletär; bolsjevikiska terrorismen; kadetterna; ryssar; rysshotet; Moskovitien; Poltava; Pultava; Taurien; Katerynoslaw; Tjernihiv; Czernin; nationalhjälte; mensjeviker; maximalisterna; minimalisterna; interimregering; provisorisk regering; rada; suprematien; centralmakterna; Tyskland; Weimar republic; Deutsches Reich; Tyska riket; Kaiser Wilhelm; Treaty of Brest-Litovsk; Belarus; kommunistpropaganda; Mohilev; fredsförhandling; Kaukasus; Kuban; Don;

Sammanfattning: This dissertation is a quantitative study with elements of qualitative analysis. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate WHAT was written about Ukraine's independence 1917 in Swedish press 1917–1918. The qualitative part of the survey was intended to answer the question if the newspaper's political attitude influenced the news reports during the chosen period. The exact periodization was determined to be between March 1, 1917 and June 30, 1918. This periodization was chosen because of the March Revolution in 1917, which triggered independence declarations in a number of countries oppressed by Moscow, who now saw their chance of freedom. June 1918 became the end of the investigation because it was just when the peace agreement between Ukraine and the Soviet Union was signed. The source material has been chosen to represent a multitude of ideological orientations. It was liberal, moderate, conservative, liberal and left-wing orientations. The source material consisted of newspaper articles from the following newspapers: Dagens Nyheter, Aftonbladet, Göteborgs Aftonblad, Svenska Dagbladet, Dalpilen, Kalmar Tidning and Norrskensflamman. Quantitative methodology was used on the source material. This method consisted of a reviewing of newspaper articles in searching of news reports from Ukraine or articles which had something to do with the events in Ukraine. Every newspaper was searched day after day. The crawled material was presented in two chapters representing different periods. The first chapter of the results presented the results from 1917, and more precisely from March to December 1917. The second chapter presented the results from 1918, but also from December 1917, that is, the result from December 1917 through June 1918. The whole result was then discussed in a separate chapter where the qualitative analysis was also discussed. The result of the quantitative analysis showed that it has been written relatively sparcely about Ukraine's independence although the volume of articles increased from December 1917 and even more in 1918. Sometimes there were articles on the first page. But for the most part, the articles with Ukraine issues were placed among other foreign articles. It was also found in the survey that it was the first World War that drew attention to the newspapers, even though the events in Petrograd and then in Ukraine took more space. This survey also showed that what was written about Ukraine's independence was also what appears in the reference literature. The news reports reported how Ukraine proclaimed independence in March 1917 and later on proclaimed an independent republic in November 1917 when the Bolsheviks conducted their coup d'état in Petrograd. The newspapers also wrote how the Russian Communists sent a declaration of war to Ukraine in December 1917 and about the war that followed. The articles also tell us how negotiations on Ukraine Peace went on in Brest-Litovsk, and how they ended up with alliance between Germany and Ukraine with the campaign against the communists. It was told how the German army marched into Ukraine to free it from the bolsheviks. Until May 1918 there were battles between the German-Ukrainian Army and the Communists. In June 1918 the peace agreement was signed and this survey’s investigation ended. The survey showed that it was written about Ukraine's independence in all newspapers. Dagens Nyheter had the most news articles linked to the survey. Although the number of articles was not subject for analysis in this survey. The qualitative analysis was based on using Höjelid's theoretical concepts "positive sound" and "negative sound" on the quantitative analysis material. The qualitative analysis’ result showed that it was almost impossible to see the differences between the newspapers because the articles were traded between the newspapers, i.e. the content was copied straight away. It should be noted that not all content was the subject of copying between the newspapers. Copying occurred to a greater extent, but there were still original articles derived from the respective newspaper. Most of the articles were also direct telegrams that were communicated abroad to the newspaper's editors. A lot of these telegrammic articles were sent with a purpose to mislead society. These angled articles were published without further examination in Swedish press. There were articles from, for example, Dagens Nyheter whose editors noted the "strange Petrograd reports" and informed about it for the purpose of enlightening the public. However, as most newspapers were occupied with World War I, as was shown in the source material, the newspaper editorial office was less interested in other foreign events. Therefore, such angled articles could be found in Swedish press on a larger scale.

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